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人像摄影 平面构图技巧

Use button groups to join multiple buttons together as one composite component. Build them with a series of <a> or <button> elements.


We recommend the following guidelines for using button groups and toolbars:

  • Always use the same element in a single button group, <a> or <button>.
  • Don't mix buttons of different colors in the same button group.
  • Use icons in addition to or instead of text, but be sure include alt and title text where appropriate.

Related Button groups with dropdowns (see below) should be called out separately and always include a dropdown caret to indicate intended behavior.


Here's how the HTML looks for a standard button group built with anchor tag buttons:

<div class="btn-group">  <button class="btn">1</button>  <button class="btn">2</button>  <button class="btn">3</button></div>

Toolbar example

Combine sets of <div class="btn-group"> into a <div class="btn-toolbar"> for more complex components.

<div class="btn-toolbar">  <div class="btn-group">    ...  </div></div>

Checkbox and radio flavors

Button groups can also function as radios, where only one button may be active, or checkboxes, where any number of buttons may be active. View the Javascript docs for that.

Get the javascript »

Dropdowns in button groups

Heads up! Buttons with dropdowns must be individually wrapped in their own .btn-group within a .btn-toolbar for proper rendering.

Button dropdowns

Example markup

Similar to a button group, our markup uses regular button markup, but with a handful of additions to refine the style and support Bootstrap's dropdown jQuery plugin.

<div class="btn-group">  <a class="btn dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" href="#">    Action    <span class="caret"></span>  </a>  <ul class="dropdown-menu">    <!-- dropdown menu links -->  </ul></div>

Works with all button sizes

Button dropdowns work at any size. your button sizes to .btn-large, .btn-small, or .btn-mini.

Requires javascript

Button dropdowns require the Bootstrap dropdown plugin to function.

In some cases—like mobile—dropdown menus will extend outside the viewport. You need to resolve the alignment manually or with custom javascript.

Split button dropdowns

Overview and examples

Building on the button group styles and markup, we can easily create a split button. Split buttons feature a standard action on the left and a dropdown toggle on the right with contextual links.


Utilize the extra button classes .btn-mini, .btn-small, or .btn-large for sizing.

<div class="btn-group">  ...  <ul class="dropdown-menu pull-right">    <!-- dropdown menu links -->  </ul></div>

Example markup

We expand on the normal button dropdowns to provide a second button action that operates as a separate dropdown trigger.

<div class="btn-group">  <button class="btn">Action</button>  <button class="btn dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown">    <span class="caret"></span>  </button>  <ul class="dropdown-menu">    <!-- dropdown menu links -->  </ul></div>

Dropup menus

Dropdown menus can also be toggled from the bottom up by adding a single class to the immediate parent of .dropdown-menu. It will flip the direction of the .caret and reposition the menu itself to move from the bottom up instead of top down.

<div class="btn-group dropup">  <button class="btn">Dropup</button>  <button class="btn dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown">    <span class="caret"></span>  </button>  <ul class="dropdown-menu">    <!-- dropdown menu links -->  </ul></div>

Multicon-page pagination

When to use

Ultra simplistic and minimally styled pagination inspired by Rdio, great for apps and search results. The large block is hard to miss, easily scalable, and provides large click areas.

Stateful page links

Links are customizable and work in a number of circumstances with the right class. .disabled for unclickable links and .active for current page.

Flexible alignment

Add either of two optional classes to change the alignment of pagination links: .pagination-centered and .pagination-right.


The default pagination component is flexible and works in a number of variations.


Wrapped in a <div>, pagination is just a <ul>.

<div class="pagination">  <ul>    <li><a href="#">Prev</a></li>    <li class="active">      <a href="#">1</a>    </li>    <li><a href="#">2</a></li>    <li><a href="#">3</a></li>    <li><a href="#">4</a></li>    <li><a href="#">Next</a></li>  </ul></div>

Pager For quick previous and next links

About pager

The pager component is a set of links for simple pagination implementations with light markup and even lighter styles. It's great for simple sites like blogs or magazines.

Optional disabled state

Pager links also use the general .disabled class from the pagination.

Default example

By default, the pager centers links.

<ul class="pager">  <li>    <a href="#">Previous</a>  </li>  <li>    <a href="#">Next</a>  </li></ul>

Aligned links

Alternatively, you can align each link to the sides:

<ul class="pager">  <li class="previous">    <a href="#">&larr; Older</a>  </li>  <li class="next">    <a href="#">Newer &rarr;</a>  </li></ul>

Labels Markup
Default <span class="label">Default</span>
Success <span class="label label-success">Success</span>
Warning <span class="label label-warning">Warning</span>
Important <span class="label label-important">Important</span>
Info <span class="label label-info">Info</span>
Inverse <span class="label label-inverse">Inverse</span>


Badges are small, simple components for displaying an indicator or count of some sort. They're commonly found in email clients like or on mobile apps for push notifications.

Available classes

Name Example Markup
Default 1 <span class="badge">1</span>
Success 2 <span class="badge badge-success">2</span>
Warning 4 <span class="badge badge-warning">4</span>
Important 6 <span class="badge badge-important">6</span>
Info 8 <span class="badge badge-info">8</span>
Inverse 10 <span class="badge badge-inverse">10</span>

Hero unit

Bootstrap provides a lightweight, flexible component called a hero unit to showcase content on your site. It works well on marketing and content-heavy sites.


Wrap your content in a div like so:

<div class="hero-unit">  <h1>Heading</h1>  <p>Tagline</p>  <p>    <a class="btn btn-primary btn-large">      Learn more    </a>  </p></div>

Hello, world!

This is a simple hero unit, a simple jumbotron-style component for calling extra attention to featured content or information.

Learn more

Page header

A simple shell for an h1 to appropriately space out and segment sections of content on a page. It can utilize the h1's default small, element as well most other components (with additional styles).

<div class="page-header">  <h1>Example page header</h1></div>

Default thumbnails

By default, Bootstrap's thumbnails are designed to showcase linked images with minimal required markup.

Highly customizable

With a bit of extra markup, it's possible to add any kind of HTML content like headings, paragraphs, or buttons into thumbnails.

  • Thumbnail label

    Cras justo odio, dapibus ac facilisis in, egestas eget quam. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit.

    Action Action

  • Thumbnail label

    Cras justo odio, dapibus ac facilisis in, egestas eget quam. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit.

    Action Action

Why use thumbnails

Thumbnails (previously .media-grid up until v1.4) are great for grids of photos or videos, image search results, retail products, portfolios, and much more. They can be links or static content.

Simple, flexible markup

Thumbnail markup is simple—a ul with any number of li elements is all that is required. It's also super flexible, allowing for any type of content with just a bit more markup to wrap your contents.

Uses grid column sizes

Lastly, the thumbnails component uses existing grid system classes—like .span2 or .span3—for control of thumbnail dimensions.

The markup

As mentioned previously, the required markup for thumbnails is light and straightforward. Here's a look at the default setup 人像摄影构图技巧全解 pdf:

<ul class="thumbnails">  <li class="span3">    <a href="#" class="thumbnail">      <img src=""  >    </a>  </li>  ...</ul>

For custom HTML content in thumbnails, the markup changes slightly. To allow block level content anywhere, we swap the <a> for a <div> like so:

<ul class="thumbnails">  <li class="span3">    <div class="thumbnail">      <img src=""  >      <h5>Thumbnail label</h5>      <p>Thumbnail caption right here...</p>    </div>  </li>  ...</ul>

More examples

Explore all your options with the various grid classes available to you. You can also mix and match different sizes.

Lightweight defaults

Rewritten base class

With Bootstrap 2, we've simplified the base class: .alert instead of .alert-message. We've also reduced the minimum required markup—no <p> is required by default, just the outer <div>.

Single alert message

For a more durable component with less code, we've removed the differentiating look for block alerts, messages that come with more padding and typically more text. The class also has changed to .alert-block.

Goes great with javascript

Bootstrap comes with a great jQuery plugin that supports alert messages, making dismissing them quick and easy.

Get the plugin »

Example alerts

Wrap your message and an optional close icon in a div with simple class.

人像摄影技巧 构图 百度经验 Best check yo self, you're not looking too good.
<div class="alert">  <button class="close" data-dismiss="alert">×</button>  <strong>Warning!</strong> Best check yo self, you're not looking too good.</div>

Heads up! iOS devices require an href="#" for the dismissal of alerts. Be sure to include it and the data attribute for anchor close icons. Alternatively, you may use a <button> element with the data attribute, which we have opted to do for our docs. When using <button>, you must include type="button" or your forms may not submit.

Easily extend the standard alert message with two optional classes: .alert-block for more padding and text controls and .alert-heading for a matching heading.


Best check yo self, you're not looking too good. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et.

<div class="alert alert-block">  <a class="close" data-dismiss="alert" href="#">×</a>  <h4 class="alert-heading">Warning!</h4>  Best check yo self, you're not...</div>

Contextual alternatives Add optional classes to change an alert's connotation

Error or danger

人像摄影的几大构图 Change a few things up and try submitting again.
<div class="alert alert-error">  ...</div>


人像摄影构图禁忌案例 You successfully read this important alert message.
<div class="alert alert-success">  ...</div>


Heads up! This alert needs your attention, but it's not super important.
<div class="alert alert-info">  ...</div>

Examples and markup


Default progress bar with a vertical gradient.

<div class="progress">  <div class="bar"       style="width: 60%;"></div></div>


Uses a gradient to create a striped effect (no IE).

<div class="progress progress-striped">  <div class="bar"       style="width: 20%;"></div></div>


Takes the striped example and animates it (no IE).

<div class="progress progress-striped     active">  <div class="bar"       style="width: 40%;"></div></div>

Options and browser support

Additional colors

Progress bars use some of the same button and alert classes for consistent styles.

Striped bars

Similar to the solid colors, we have varied striped progress bars.


Progress bars use CSS3 transitions, so if you dynamically adjust the width via javascript, it will smoothly resize.

If you use the .active class, your .progress-striped progress bars will animate the stripes left to right.

Browser support

Progress bars use CSS3 gradients, transitions, and animations to achieve all their effects. These features are not supported in IE7-9 or older versions of Firefox.

Opera and IE do not support animations at this time.


Use the well as a simple effect on an element to give it an inset effect.

Look, I'm in a well!
<div class="well">  ...</div>

Close icon

Use the generic close icon for dismissing content like modals and alerts.

<button class="close">&times;</button>

iOS devices require an href="#" for click events if you rather use an anchor.

<a class="close" href="#">&times;</a>